Guwahati being the lone metropolis of North eastern part, the metropolis witnessed many alterations like rapid addition of population, depletion of forest screen, spread of diseases which resulted many environmental jobs akin to set down, air, H2O and society. Most of the alterations have taken topographic point due to the consequence of altering natural environment, enormous growing of population peculiarly after switching of the capital from Shillong to Dispur, hill incline destabilization due to building of roads, brooding houses, public establishments and besides for invasion in wetlands and low lying countries. As the metropolis of Guwahati is bounded on three sides by hills and the other side by the mighty river Brahmaputra, the horizontal enlargement is restricted for which many multistoried edifices have come up in recent old ages merely to suit of all time increasing population ( 1991- 2001 decadal growing rate is 38.6 % ) . On the other manus, required substructure and metropolis comfortss necessary for metropolis inhabitants and metropolis users have non developed consequently. As a consequence many jobs arisen in the metropolis, such as traffic congestion, H2O logging, dusty atmosphere, H2O borne and airborne diseases etc.
In this survey an effort has been given to foreground the environmental jobs arisen in Guwahati, their causes and effects.
The metropolis of Guwahati is said to be the legendary Pragjyotispur, the metropolis of eastern visible radiation. Guwahati is said to be the gateway of Northeast India. The metropolis is situated between 260 10'25 '' north latitude and 910 45'0 '' east longitude. The southern, eastern and a portion of western sides of Guwahati are surrounded by hills and knolls. The mighty river Brahmaputra in the North is fluxing in north-east to south-west way. Other of import rivers in and around Guwahati are Bharalu, Mora-bharalu, Basistha-bahini etc. The metropolis is dotted with swamps, fens and H2O organic structures like Dipor beel, Dighali pukhuri, Silsaku measure etc. The metropolis falls under humid, semitropical part characterized by warm humid clime with heavy rainfall ( mean rainfall 1600mm ) and a comparatively cool winter with instead bare rainfall. The maximal and minimal temperature recorded in the metropolis is 38 grade and 16 grade severally with comparative humidness of more than 76.6 % . As the metropolis is the commercial nervus Centre of the Northeast has developed route ( National Highway No31, No37 and No 40 ) , rail and air connectivity with remainder of the state.
Main jobs identified in the metropolis are different types of pollution caused due to adult male induced activities, addition of population, H2O logging, dirt eroding etc.
This survey aims at making such an environment in Guwahati that the metropolis could be made liveable and loveable 1. With this purpose the aim this survey has been designed
To analyse the geo-ecological apparatus of Guwahati.
To foreground the environmental jobs associated with be aftering procedure of the metropolis.
To analyze the cause and consequence of assorted jobs, and
To throw visible radiation on the remedial steps to be taken to minimise the wretchedness of the metropolis inhabitants and metropolis users.
Here, in the survey both primary and secondary beginnings of informations have been used. Primary informations were collected by topographic point visit and direct observation of the phenomena. On the other manus secondary informations have been collected from assorted published plants such as books, diaries research articles, studies etc. Topographical maps ( No 78N/12 & A ; 16 ) and satellite imaginations ( SPOT MLA P-238, R-298 Dated 18/10/1990 and Landsat TM P-137, R -042 Dated 10/06/1988 ) have been used to analyze the nature of the metropolis growing, understand the environmental issues and to happen out solutions for minimising the wretchednesss of the metropolis inhabitants.
Collected informations have been summarized, analyzed and presented in assorted signifiers like graphs, tabular arraies, maps etc. for easy apprehension of the content of the paper.
Data Analysis and Findings
Locational distinctive feature of the metropolis invites many environmental jobs. Back in clip the metropolis was known as Pragjyotishpur, which finds reference in Mahabharata, Ramayana, Raghuvansha of Kalidas. Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited the metropolis in 640 AD and described in inside informations about the imposts and manners of the people of Guwahati. Located on strategic point the metropolis has ever been a bone of contention between rival political powers. A figure of bloody wars were fought between Ahom and Mughal swayers for Guwahati 's ownership.
With the weakening of Ahom power in Assam, the metropolis passed into the custodies of British in 1826. During the British years political pre-eminence of Guwahati shifted to Shillong, which they chose as State Capital. In 1971 with the reorganisation of Assam State and shifting of capital to Guwahati ( Dispur ) it once more recovered its political pre-eminence in north east part . Since so Guwahati has made a rapid advancement every bit far as demographic, commercial and industrial activities are concerned. All these activities are responsible for many environmental jobs in the metropolis .
Geographic and geological apparatus are responsible to a great extent for the jobs like water-logging, landslide etc. in the metropolis. The general form of the metropolis is merely like a bowl surrounded by hills and knolls in three sides and river side roads on the staying side. The height in the field countries of the metropolis varies from 49.5m to 55.5m. . There are a figure of little knolls in the metropolis of which Sarania ( 193m ) , Nabagraha ( 217m ) , Nilachal ( 193m ) , and Chunsali ( 293m ) are of import. The hills are composed of Granite, Quartzite, Hornblende-Biotic-Schist, Pegmatite and Quartz. On the other manus the field countries of the metropolis covered by
old and new alluvial sediment. Most portion of the metropolis composed of light yellowish to ruddy dirt. When the dirts wholly H2O saturated during the monsoon months accelerate the rate of landslide jeopardies. The flinty stones on the hills bit by bit exposed due to hill dirt eroding. Quite frequently rock fall occur during the end portion of the monsoon months and take cherished human lives and harm belongings. Since August 1987 to August 2005 every bit many as 22 instances of landslide and stone autumn instances recorded in different locations of Guwahati.
Climatic status peculiarly rainfall concentration in monsoon months from June to September do many incommodiousness like water-logging, dusty atmosphere, spread of H2O borne and airborne double daggers. Normally June rainfall is ever dismaying but the cloudburst absorbed by dirt. At this phase landslide, stone autumn and H2O logging etc. make non originate. But from July onwards in each heavy shower cause H2O logging in the countries like Narengi, Satgaon, Saimail, Khanapara, Noonmati, Bamunimaidam, Chandmari, Silpukhuri, Guwahati Club, Uzanbazar, Panbazar, Fancy Bazar, Paltan Bazar, Athgaon, Bharalumukh, Maligaon, Adabari, Jalukbari, G.S. Road, Zoo Road Tinali, Rajgarj Road, Bhangagarh, Dispur. When hill soils become concentrated landslide and stone autumn occur. Again, instantly after H2O logging, route surface become boggy and roadside drains clogged with silt derived from the hills. Soon after, dry clay on the roads create dust-covered ambiance and increase air pollution. Furthermore, storm H2O cause commixture of drain H2O and infected armored combat vehicle wastewaters with imbibing H2O beginnings aggravate the wellness jeopardies in the metropolis.
Almost all the jobs of the metropolis related to the population growing. The decadal growing of population in Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority ( GMDA ) clearly indicates how population may make jobs in the metropolis ( Table- 1 ) The urban conurbation map since 1911 besides bespeak how metropolis has been expanded ( Fig-4 ) . This has drastically changed the land usage form in the metropolis ( Table-2 ) .More peculiarly slums and homesteaders have increased manifold in last few old ages. As a consequence many incommodiousness and jobs have arisen in the metropolis.
Defective planning and blank in put to deathing the development schemes aggravate the jobs in the metropolis. In this respect, unequal route infinite, deficiency of parking installation, undersized wayside drains, randomly set public-service corporation wires and pipes are deserving adverting. Almost all the of import roads, viz. GNB Road, GS Road, MG Road and most of the traffic point face ague traffic congestion. Up to 1975 the figure of motorised vehicles in the metropolis was merely 27,000 which has increased to 1,29,856 in the twelvemonth 1990. After that the rate of addition accelerated and by 2003 it records 3,13,387. As such around one hundred thousand motor vehicle added to the roads of Guwahati every twelvemonth . On the other manus the metropolis country has increased by merely 46 sq kilometer in last 20 old ages. Most of the streets in the metropolis are merely 4.8m broad. There are many lanes, which have merely 3.6m or even 3.0m breadth. Thesis should be at least 8.0m for visible radiation and medium vehicles and at least 9.0m for heavy vehicles . The consequences of the vehicular emanation show the misdemeanor in emanation bound by 53 per centum and 81 per centum in instance of gasoline and Diesel vehicles severally . It clearly indicates the magnitude of pollution degree in the metropolis.
Lack of consciousness and inclination of go againsting the norms and regulations in building houses, disposing family wastes and staying traffic regulations cause many jobs in the metropolis.
Inanition in implementing Torahs besides responsible for the jobs of traffic congestion, waste disposal, hill slope destabilization, wetland invasion and assorted types of pollution in the metropolis.