Job content Lack of variety, monotonous or under-stimulating tasks Continuous exposure to people
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Work load and work place High level of time pressure Machine pacing
Work schedule Night shifts Strict and Inflexible working schedules Long or unsociable hours
Participation and control
Lack of control over workload (over work method, work pace, working hours and the work environment)
Organizational culture and functions Low level of support for problem solving and personal development Lack of definition of, or agreement on, organization's objectives.
Interpersonal relationship at work Social or physical isolation, solitary work Poor relationship with co-workers and Interpersonal conflicts Bullying, harassment and violence No agreed procedures for dealing with complaints and problems
Role in organization Responsibility for people
Career development, status and pay Job insecurity Poor pay
Career stagnation or uncertainty For a bus driver for example, main factors of psychological risk will be that it's always the same, there are no variety in driving bus, there are a lot of pressure with the time, a bus driver needs always to be in time because if he's late it damages each user of the bus, there are not a lot of evolution perspectives in the company when you're a bus driver, you work alone.
For a controller it's quite a disagreeable task, they social gratitude, people dislike bus controller, it's not always easy to take care about complaints of people, sometimes there is a risk of exposure to verbal or physical lenience from people.
Dilemmas between ethical and legal behavior? Stress at work can come when there are differences between pressures from one person and pressures from an other one. For example, when your boss asks you something but you can't apply it or you have a dilemma, should I apply it?
It can create some stress For a controller, some dilemmas can appears in some situations, they have to find the threshold between tolerance, ethics, respect of users, and respects of company rules it's not always easy A bus driver can have some dilemmas, for example: the bus is late, but there are some young child in the bus, he can choose o conduce slowly and make an ecological drive even if it's not a law and even if he wants to drive quickly to minimize the late.
Solutions to prevent or minimize problems and more ethical attitude? For bus driver and controller, they both need a lot of training to prevent any problem they can meet and help them to do the best choice; they have to be used to manage their stress efficiently. It's possible to schedule the time at each stop, and crowded runs to skip certain stops for example. The problem is too if the bus are completed and the passengers are in a hurry. The bus driver can manage at best the situation.